Aramaic in the Old and New Testament

Winding down deeper into the Scriptural ancient scripts trail, one discovers so much more. It often seems like diving deeper and deeper into a bottomless ocean. There is so much knowledge and spirituality to be gained, I often wonder, as to how did I miss making this pleasant journey earlier in my life? It’s happening now all thanks to a microscopic bug labelled Covid. Ironic.

If you have read the previous ancient scripts trail post, then you know that Hebrew is the script for the Tanakh/Old Testament (OT) and Koine Greek for the New Testament (NT). However, it now emerges that considerable portions of the scripture text are written in Aramaic. Well, its just about 1% of the OT, but then that is about 250 verses, and a few of them in the NT too. ( The Gospel of Mark, chapter 5, verse 41 has the Aramaic “Talitha Kumi” or “Little girl, arise” also used as the featured image of this post. )

The Aramaic language was the official language of various empires that attacked and subjugated the Northern and Southern Kingdoms of Israel and Judahʳᵉᶠᵉʳ. Not surprising then that the books of Daniel and Ezra carry many chapters in Imperial Aramaic*, the lingua franca of the Babylonianᴺᵉᵇᵘ and the Achaemenidᶜʸʳ empires.

I was able to code in Imperial Aramaic to my system, for the pleasure of the interested readers. It has a Unicode block allotted to it, . Daniel chapter 2 verse 4 kicks off the Aramaic portion and it ends with chapter 7. The script reads from right to left.

Daniel 2:4 — Then the Chaldeans spoke to the King in Aramaic – “O King, live forever! Tell the dream to your servants, we will give the interpretation.”

דניאל ב.ד — וידברו הכשדים למלך, ארמית: מלכא לעלמין חיי — אמר חלמא לעבדך ופשרא נחוא

𐡃𐡍𐡉𐡀𐡋 — 𐡅𐡉𐡃𐡁𐡓𐡅 𐡄𐡊𐡔𐡃𐡉𐡌 𐡋𐡌𐡋𐡊 𐡀𐡓𐡌𐡉𐡕 𐡌𐡋𐡊𐡀 𐡋𐡏𐡋𐡌𐡉𐡍 𐡇𐡉𐡉 — 𐡀𐡌𐡓 𐡇𐡋𐡌𐡀 𐡅𐡐𐡔𐡓𐡀 𐡍𐡇𐡅𐡀

Above, you can see the English, then Hebrew and lastly in bold italics, the Imperial Aramaic text. It almost takes me back to the time when Daniel must have stood before an enraged emperor i.e. Nebuchadnezzar, who wanted to tear apart all the magicians, soothsayers and wise men of his kingdom. He wanted them to tell him what his dream was and to interpret his dream. The slaughter was about to begin as no one was willing to do so. That is until Daniel stepped in. Living in faith was never easy.

The NT has far fewer Aramaic portions. The older Imperial Aramaic script had changed to a form closely resembling the Syriac-Aramaicᴾᵉˢʰᶦᵗᵗᵃ script. (The script reads from right to left and has its own Unicode block, allowing me to code it in my system.) It is an established fact that Aramaic was the common language in Israel, during the time of Christ. The Gospel of Mark, chapter 15 verse 34 has Aramaic in it.

Mark 15:34 — At the ninth hour, Jesus cried in a loud voice – “Eloi Eloi lema sabachtani” which is translated as “My God, My God why have you forsaken me?”

ܐܠܝ ܐܠܝ ܠܡܢܐ ܫܒܩܬܢܝ

Aramaic in bold italics, above. The Syriac Peshitta NT puts it as ‘Eil Eil Lmana Shwaqthani’. I have rendered it as ‘Eli Eli Lmana Sabaqthani’ᴱˡᶦ, more in line with the traditional rendering. Some of the bystanders of the crucifixion, heard His cry, and misunderstood it as a call to Elijah. ‘Eli’ rhymes partly with Elijah.

The Aramaic script fills an important void as far as my understanding of the Scripture goes. It brings into focus the times of Jewish captivity and exile in Babylon and then other empires, then on to the Messiah and His Ministry. The language and the script continued to be used widely in the Middle-East till the 7th century AD. Thereafter, it managed to survive through the centuries in parts of Syria, Turkey, Iraq, Israel and India. Currently, it is the liturgical language of the Syrian Orthodox church.

That’s all from me.

Please do check out the references below if you are interested in digging deeper into Aramaic.


ʳᵉᶠᵉʳ History of ancient Israel and Judah

* Imperial Aramaic

ᴺᵉᵇᵘ Babylonian Kingdom

ᶜʸʳ Achaemenid Empire

ᴾᵉˢʰᶦᵗᵗᵃ Syriac-Aramaic Unicode Peshitta — The Syriac NT

‘ᴱˡᶦ The cry of the Messiah at the Cross — ‘Eli’ translates to God’, ‘sebaq’ means to forsake, in Aramaic.

The Trail of Ancient Biblical Scripts

Hi there!!

I have been busy on the ancient scripts trail, while studying the Tanakh aka Old Testament and the New Testament. Thanks to the Coronavirus, well not really!

The oldest ‘known’ ancient script ( i.e. backed by ancient artefacts discovered by archaeologists ), which was used by the Hebrews is Paleo-Hebrew *(PH for short) aka the Phoenician* script. Due to the availability of it’s alphabet in Unicodeⁿ, I was able to modify some system files to incorporate it in my operating system. This script was in use from 1000 B.C. to 500 B.C.ⁱⁱ

Another script that was even more ancient and, was the precursor of PH, was the Proto-Sinaitic** (PS for short) script. Unfortunately it is available only as a user font as of now and we cannot use it across the internet. This script was used, from Canaan to Sinai, during the period: 1900 B.C. to 1500 B.C.ⁱⁱ, i.e. from the time of Abraham’s exploits to Joshua’s reign. PS was also the precursor of the ancient Greek script, which led later to the development of Koine Greek.

The relevance of getting to know these ancient scripts lies in the fact that we can ground ourself in the historical basis of the Scripture. Further, we can make out that far from being nonchalant in communication, people in ancient times were constantly trying to better the writing scripts and preserve their history, for later generations.

Let’s kick off by using the PH, PS scripts for Genesis 1:1, ( in Hebrew — בראישת א.א ) , please keep in mind that all these scripts were written in a right to left style.

Latin: In the beginning, God made the Heavens, and the Earth.

Hebrew: בראשית, ברא אלהים, את השמים, ואת הארץ

PH: 𐤁𐤓𐤀𐤉𐤔𐤕, 𐤁𐤓𐤀 𐤀𐤋𐤄𐤉𐤌 𐤀𐤕 𐤄𐤔𐤌𐤉𐤌, 𐤅𐤀𐤕 𐤄𐤀𐤓𐤑

Rendering of Genesis 1:1 in PH Image form , top row and in PS script, bottom row.

As seen in the image above, the Paleo-Hebrew (PH) script had evolved from the Proto-Sinaitic (PS) one and this is brought about by the images of the PH script, which is the basis of the PH text. *The PH images and text alphabet chart is available in the resources link section at the end of this post.

Consider the first word in Genesis 1:1⁰: B’reishit or נראשית, it means ‘At first’ or as translated in English ‘In the beginning’. The key alphabet here is ‘ר’ or Resh, in Hebrew. Resh means the head, and since it was/is considered the prominent part of the body it also means authority and being first. Now the PS script clearly brings out the ‘head’ part with their pictographical alphabet Ra’š, that of a human head.

The Hebrew alphabet Resh, starting off from the PS ‘head’ at the bottom row, ( presented prominently on the right part of the image above ) and its iterations through PH 𐤓 , and finally to its current form of Hebrew ר , on the top row.

Digging deeper we find the Hebrew alphabet chain starts at א, or aleph, this is a variation of an ox head pictograph which was used in the PS script. The ancients regarded power to be represented by an ox head. I am assuming that this is because most of them were agriculturalists and knew the importance of cattle. Aleph thus represents strength and leadership, even in the current Hebrew alphabet system. The PH script comes close to representing Aleph as an ox head 𐤀 , but the PS script takes the cake with the image of its first alphabet, below:

The alphabet Alp in PS script also known as aleph in later PH and Hebrew scripts, it matches almost perfectly with an ox head.

Moving on to Koine Greek we have Christ Himself describing Himself as the Alpha Α and Omega Ω, in the New Testament. Alpha starts the Koine Greek alphabet chain and Omega is the last alphabet in the chain. Thus Christ is the Absolute Power as both the Head and the End of All Creation. This will be the subject of another post delving into how the PS script morphed on to the Phoenician aka PH script and then created the ancient Greek writing system. Koine Greek and the modern Greek script are the children of the PS script.

I could go an and on but this post will almost certainly turn into a thick novel, so its time to conclude by saying that if you find the PS, PH and Phoenician scripts mention confusing, don’t blame me. It all happened at the tower of Babel, and we are all just wading in the aftermath. I would also like to point out that this is no way an exhaustive description of ancient Biblical scripts, interested readers may delve deeper by using resources mentioned below just to start on this trail.


*Paleo-Hebrew/Phoenician: This page contains the PH Image and text chart. Remember PH is the abbreviation for Paleo-Hebrew.


** Please remember that PS is the abbreviation for Proto-Sinaitic script. The font is by Kris J. Udd, copyright information of his fonts is available online.

ⁱⁱTime periods are approximate, as are the timelines of the Biblical patriarchs. Note: I did not use the nikkud marks because these were not used in ancient Hebrew scripts. Nikkuds are vowel marks, and vowel pronunciations were left to the reader, who were quite aware of the consonant-vowel word play.

Tracking Ancient Languages in the Covid Era

Shalom, Namaste and Hello!

This week was hectic in many ways with my apartment complex being declared as a ‘Covid Hotspot’ although restrictions haven’t been applied as yet. My cycling trips have been drastically cut down with regular 100 km. runs now being limited to 50 km. or so. The general advise here is to hunker down and closet oneself to beat the bug.

My new hobby is checking the trail of ancient languages and their evolution, with the focus being on Hebrew and Koine Greek. It was my dream to learn the original language of the Tanakh ( the Jewish Bible, written in Hebrew ) and the New Testament ( NT for short , written in Koine Greek ) and *cough* thanks to Covid, I am on the cusp of achieving it. I would like to emphasize that it will take years of hard learning to become an expert. At this point I am a novice.

As far as Hebrew goes, the script used in the ancient kingdoms of Jewish kings was ketav ivri or Paleo-Hebrew i.e. before 500 B.C., when it was replaced by the Aramaic script. The Pentateuch or Torah was written in this script as was most of the other books in the Old Testament. Paleo Hebrew fonts are available albeit rare. Am also planning to code in the ancient script in to my operating system to use it more liberally.

Amos 5:24 in Ketuv Ivri font
Amos 5:24 in Paleo-Hebrew or Ketuv Ivri

The Book of Psalms ( Tehillim in Hebrew ), one of the many books of the Tanakh , is my all time favourite. There are several online resources available to get one started and running on the ancient languages trail and I am not going to elaborate on these. Tip :- A good way to kick off is to access an online Interlinear Bible. The Tanakh ( Hebrew acronym for Torah, Nevi’im and Ketuvim ) is almost the same as the Old Testament with the order of the books being different.

Koine Greek has a ton of resources online and I had been dabbling in it for several years now, but decided to get serious only in the Covid era. The original NT was written in an unbroken flow style, with ancient manuscripts using both majuscule and minuscule Greek text. Again, studying Koine Greek is quite technical with a lot of grammar and associated stuff involved. The Gospel of John is my favourite book in the NT and am thrilled with the ancient Greek reading. [Greek — ΤΟ ΚΑΤΑ ΙΩΑΝΝΗΝ ΑΓΙΟΝ ΕΥΑΓΓΕΛΙΟΝ, the Gospel according to Saint John.]

Sanskrit is another ancient language that I have in my sights but learning Sanskrit is like fish taking to the water for me as I had studied it till the 8th standard in school. My scores were almost cent percent in the Sanskrit school tests. Also my mother tongue is Hindi and it is interwoven with Sanskrit. So, I am going easy on Sanskrit right now with the focus being on Hebrew and Koine Greek.

That is it from me then, hope we all beat this era and emerge victorious on the other side. Ciao!

Extended lockdown with some easing

This is a quick update on some of my experiences during the COVID19 pandemic.

My cycling is about to kick off, albeit in a very limited fashion, maybe just in and around my city locality. But, I can’t live without it. So, I will take whatever is on the plate.

We had a close shave after being indirectly exposed to a seriously ill COVID19 patient in a hospital nearby. A family member got very sick and we admitted them to the hospital when a severely ill patient in their Intensive Care Unit on another floor, developed COVID19 symptoms. The young man was immediately shifted to another COVID19 specialty hospital where he, unfortunately, passed away. Thereafter, we went into medical quarantine for 14 days. We are out of it and are OK.

The lockdown here in my city has been extended but they have divided the city into ‘Green, Orange, and Red’ zones. The red zones are under complete lockdown, orange ones have a partial lockdown while green zones are fully open. In any case, people are NOT permitted to loaf or loiter on the streets in any zone. The police stations here are becoming the biggest COVID19 casualties with police people serving in red zones regularly getting infected. This may pose a law and order issue in the future.

The good news is that people here are learning to cope and live with this infection. Is there any other way? Life goes on even in the worst of circumstances. Hoping for the best but preparing for the worst should be the motto.


PS:- Dated 9 May 2020

Post-COVID19 Era

This ‘thing’ — the global virus wave, struck my town out of the blue and it came in when I was planning and preparing to take off for a long bike tour. I am sure this is what most of us feel around the globe, like being punched in the belly. It helps little being cooped up in a 21-day lockdown, which may extend up to 90 days. Today is Day 4 of the 21-day lockdown here in my city of Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India.

I can still tinker with my bikes and make small rounds in our housing complex campus. But, that is about it. Going out is risky and I intend to stay put unless it is absolutely necessary.

To tell you the truth most experts think that this virus is here to stay and will keep hitting us in waves. I feel it’s going to change our lifestyle in many ways, some for the good. The noise, air, and water pollution levels are almost normal here, down from the very unhealthy peaks. Nature is also reclaiming spaces slowly but surely. I truly think we had botched up this planet in a bad way with our selfish materialistic pollution-spewing lifestyle. It all came back to us with a vengeance. Do we deserve this? Hard to say.

About this virus ….. Its highly infectious, even more than the flu. Some claim that the infection rate is explosive. It has a name — SARS-CoV-2, and the disease it spawns is called as COVID-19. It started off in a city in China called Wuhan. It is NOT the flu. The virus belongs to a different family. Symptoms are flu-like, but they can be quite severe. There are no clear patterns as to whom it strikes the hardest, but people in the 70+ age group seem to be the worst off. Fatality rates are highest in the elderly having multiple underlying issues. It’s likely to infect a lot of people around the globe, the virus vaccine will take about 18 months to be in the market, could be earlier. Till then, it’s going to be like being in the middle of a hurricane.

For cyclists like me, it’s hard. But, I have so many fond memories of my previous bike tours that I think I can bank on these through the tough times. It was the best time of my life, those tours. To tell you the truth many of those around me thought I was a bit cranky and off-world. ‘Why bike when you can drive?’  ‘This is a “foreigner” thing to do, why are you doing it?’ ‘It’s a waste unless you are getting some money for it.’ These were the usual remarks and queries. They didn’t think that soaking in the beauty of forests/villages, mountain streams and talking to people in far off remote places was worth it. I hope people change their minds if we make it out through this.

I will write a lot while trying to cope with this lockdown here. I do think that when we do emerge out of this maelstrom our planet will be more beautiful and lovely than the trash can that we had turned it into.